Archiv für den Tag 13. Juni 2012

MIGAZIN: GEWALTENTEILUNG – Verhindert Scharia Machtmissbrauch?

von Khadija Katja Wöhler-Khalfallah

Die Autorin ist deutsch-tunesische Politik- und Islamwissenschaftlerin und befasst sich speziell mit dem Fundamentalismus in seinen unterschiedlichen Ausprägungen.

 

An Sayyid Qutb, dem ägyptischen Muslimbruder und Idol der Dschihadisten, lässt sich am besten aufzeigen, was sich die Adepten eines absoluten Kalifats, das den Gesetzen der Scharia uneingeschränkt Rechnung trägt, im 21. Jahrhundert erhoffen.

Qutb war der Meinung, der Mensch dürfe nur Gott dienen und die Menschen dürften einander nicht zu Herren nehmen anstelle von Gott. Wie besessen wiederholt Qutb in seiner gerade für Anhänger des Dschihad zentralen Schrift „Zeichen auf dem Weg“ den Gedanken, dass die Unterdrückung des Menschen durch andere Menschen bzw. die Dienerschaft einiger Menschen zu anderen abgeschafft werden müsse und dass dies nur möglich werde, wenn den göttlichen Gesetzen Geltung verschafft werde. Dazu sagt er: „Das Königtum Gottes auf der Erde besteht nicht darin, dass bestimmte Menschen selbst, nämlich die religiösen Autoritäten – die Souveränität (hakimiyya) ausüben, wie es in der weltlichen Macht der christlichen Kirche der Fall ist. Es besteht auch nicht darin, dass Menschen im Namen der Götter sprechen wie in jener Herrschaftsform, die als Theokratie oder Gottkönigtum beschrieben wird. Das Königtum Gottes besteht vielmehr darin, dass das Gesetz Gottes (schariat Allah) die Souveränität ausübt (hiya al-hakima) und dass die Entscheidung Gott überlassen wird gemäß dem klaren Gesetz, das er festgesetzt hat.“ (Zitiert in: Andreas Meier (Hrsg.), Der politische Auftrag des Islam, Wuppertal 1994)

Die muslimischen Fundamentalisten, so scheint es, erhoffen sich allein von Gott, erhaben genug über die menschlichen Schwächen wie Korrumpierbarkeit, Machtmissbrauch, Arroganz gegenüber den Schwachen, Ungerechtigkeit etc. zu sein. Bevor Qutb sich der Muslimbruderschaft zuwandte, war er Anhänger einer säkularen demokratischen Politik. Wichtigstes Ziel seines gesamten Handelns war das Erreichen sozialer Gerechtigkeit in einem Land, in dem ein Großteil der Bevölkerung immer noch in extremer Armut verharren musste. Mit dem Putsch der freien Offiziere 1952 wollte er, wie dies aus seinen Schriften zu belegen ist, dieser Idee sogar wieder eine Chance geben, doch als er enttäuscht feststellen musste, dass der angepriesene Sozialismus Nassers nur Maskerade war und dieser sogar gegenüber Großbritannien, das im Land am Suezkanal immer noch einen Stützpunkt unterhielt, Konzessionen zu machen bereit war, wandte er sich umso vehementer und radikaler einer Ideologie zu, die ihre Legitimation und ihr Ideal aus einer 1400 Jahre alten Vergangenheit schöpft, denn der Islam ist eine Religion der Entrechteten.

Doch was der um soziale Gerechtigkeit beseelte Qutb, wie viele seiner Anhänger und Adepten seiner und verwandter Bewegungen übersehen, ist der Umstand, dass Gott nicht selbst die Herrschaft auf Erden übernimmt, sondern, dass es am Ende auch nur Menschen sein werden, die die angebliche Botschaft Gottes auslegen werden. Und hier gibt es viele Gründe, misstrauisch ob der Qualität und Ausrichtung dieser Auslegungsarbeit zu sein. Zum einen das verheerende Niveau der Ausbildung eines muslimischen Religionsgelehrten in der heutigen Zeit und die Tatsache, dass ein Religionsgelehrter auch nur ein Mensch ist, der am Ende der Macht, dem Ruhm oder dem Geld verfallen kann. Wirklich integre Personen gibt es durchaus doch viel zu selten. Darauf also ohne Absicherung zu setzen, kommt einem Roulettespiel gleich. Lies den Rest dieses Beitrags

Sugar sellers, Kerman Bazaar

Alikhani, Ahmadi, Matinpour, Saghar, Ghorbanpour, Jalalifar: Prisoners of the day

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Six in solitary cells following protest at Evin

ICHRI: On the third anniversary of the 2009 Iranian presidential election, today 50 prisoners of conscience refused to go to Evin Prison’s visitation hall in order to protest the treatment of prisoners at Evin. A source close to families of prisoners told the International Campaign for Human Rights in Iran that consequently, six prisoners by the names of Javad Alikhani, Bahman Ahmadi Amouee, Saeed Matinpour, Arash Saghar, Farshad Ghorbanpour, and Saeed Jalalifar were transferred to Intelligence Ministry’s Ward 209 at Evin Prison. The sources told the Campaign that they are concerned about the way the intelligence forces may treat or confront these prisoners.

Families of prisoners believe that transfer of these six political prisoners from General Ward 350 to Intelligence Ministry’s Ward 209 is illegal, as the six prisoners are currently serving their finalized prison terms. According to the said sources, a group of political prisoners inside Ward 350 has been on a political fast over the past three days in order to protest lack of investigation into the death of Hoda Saber, a political prisoner who died in prison on 10 June 2011 in the absence of medical attention. The source close to families of political prisoners told the Campaign that the political fasting among the prisoners may continue to commemorate the anniversary of Hoda Saber’s passing and also the anniversary of post-election public protests, known as „the Green Movement.“

The source told the Campaign that the six prisoners were transferred to Ward 209 because security authorities thought them influential in holding a ceremony inside Ward 350’s yard, in which political prisoners gave speeches and sang songs. According to sources, Police Special Forces stormed the ceremony with suppression gear such as sticks, ended the ceremony, and transferred the six inmates to solitary confinement. Lies den Rest dieses Beitrags

16 Iranian opposition groups express support for Syrian uprising

Sixteen Iranian opposition groups have expressed their indignation at the Syrian regime’s ongoing onslaught against pro-democracy protests.

“[W]e, like many others in the world, have been saddened by the tragedies of Darra, Homs, and Hama; we are horrified by the massacre of more than ten thousand Syrian citizens by Assad’s brutal regime, and we salute you and your resistance,” the groups said in joint a statement.

“What makes the tragedies of Syria even more painful for many Iranians is the full partnership of the Islamic Republic of Iran with the regime of Bashar al-Assad,” they added. “The similarities of the tracing methods, the suppression techniques, the identical operational tactics used against the civilian protesters by pro-government Shabiha militia in Syria and by Basij militia in Iran, and the online tracking of Syrian activists are but a few of the numerous signs that warn us of the involvement of Iranian regime with the Assad regime.”

The statement also accused Iranian authorities of exploiting religious convictions in suppressing its citizens. “The Iranian government suppresses its Shia and non-Shia citizens by exploiting Shias’ religious beliefs inside Iran. Outside of Iran, in the name of Islam and under the pretense of defending Muslims, the Iranian regime pretends to support people of Bahrain, Egypt, Tunisia, and Jordan.”

The organisation also called “on the people of Syria to prevent Assad’s regime from spreading ethnic and religious divisions among them. We hope that after fall of Assad, Syria will become a country in which all citizens are equal without any ethnic or religious discrimination.”

Recently, the Coordination Council of the Green Path of Hope, the Green Movement’s highest decision-making authority, condemned the upsurge of violence in Syria and warned that the Syrian regime’s increasingly brutal crackdown on protesters could pave the way for yet another foreign intervention in the Middle East. Lies den Rest dieses Beitrags

Hillary Clinton and Shimon Peres on Iran

On June 12, Secretary of State Hillary Rodham Clinton and Israeli President Shimon Peres held a public discussion in Washington on critical Middle East issues to celebrate the 10th anniversary of the Brookings Institution’s Saban Center. The following is an excerpt about Iran from their discussion, which was moderated by Brookings Vice President Martin Indyk.

MR. INDYK:  Mr. President, if we can shift to Iran.  In 1981, you were opposed to the use of preventive force against Iraq’s nuclear program.  And I wonder, when you look back on that, what were you thinking about that at the time?  What was your reason for opposition?
PRESIDENT PERES:  Let’s not talk about Iran without patience, ability, strength, and cool, and say Iran, the Iranians are not our enemies.  In history, we have many very friendly relations, and now very dangerous.  So I’m asking ourself, why are we really against Iran?  Is it just because of nuclear bomb?  Not only.
What revolts the world against Iran is that in the 21st century, the Iranian leaders, not the Iranian people, are the only one that wants to renew imperialism – we can’t accept it – in the name of religion.  From that, it started.  That’s the reason why many Arabs are against not Iran, but the Iranian hegemony.  The Iranians don’t say the hegemony should be Arabic, because they’re not Arabs.  So they want to say it Muslim, because they’re Muslims.
And we see the way they want to construct an empire – by terror, by sending money, sending arms, hanging, bluffing.  We cannot support it.  The world cannot support it, whether you are a Russian – I am speaking in – with [Vladimir] Putin and [Dmitry] Medvedev to say we cannot support a nuclear Iran. Now, if Iran will win, the whole Middle East will become the victim.  Actually, the world economy will become the victim, because the way they rule is without any regard to anybody else.  And this is the first problem.  We cannot allow it to happen – all of us.  Lies den Rest dieses Beitrags

Man and a woman sitting on a bench

Young Iranians must employ complicated and creative behaviour to navigate around restrictions on their private lives, says journalist Kamin Mohammadi.

Iran, in her long history, has been no stranger to repression and dictatorship, mostly from invaders. Iranians quickly developed the habit of thriving when times are tough, of somehow finding a way around the obstacles.

We are long used to not being direct, to never approaching things straight. We have learnt to shimmy our ways around obstacles, and to approach fulfilling the simplest desires of life with creativity and imagination.

Nowhere is this creativity and imagination more obvious that in the relations governing men and women. Lies den Rest dieses Beitrags

Iran must not execute five Arab minority prisoners: Amnesty International

Source: Amnesty International

The Iranian authorities must immediately overturn the death sentences of five members of Iran’s Ahwazi Arab minority who were tried unfairly and may face imminent public execution, Amnesty International said after the prisoners were moved to an unknown location at the weekend.

The men were transferred out of the general section of Karoun Prison in the south-western city of Ahvaz on Saturday, prompting concerns their death sentences may be about to be carried out.

The group includes three brothers, Abd al-Rahman Heidari, Taha Heidari and Jamshid Heidari, their cousin Mansour Heidari and Amir Muawi.

All five were arrested in April 2011 amid unrest in Khuzestan province – where most of Iran’s Ahwazi Arab minority lives – and were later convicted of moharebeh (“enmity against God”) for killing a law enforcement official.

“Iran must urgently halt any plans to execute these five Ahwazi men. The death sentences of all who languish on death row in Iranian prisons should be overturned or commuted,” said Ann Harrison, Deputy Middle East and North Africa Programme Director at Amnesty International.

“Their families must be informed immediately of their whereabouts and fate, and they should be allowed access to lawyers of their choice. While held, they must be protected from all forms of torture or other ill-treatment and granted all necessary medical care.”

Death row prisoners are generally transferred to solitary confinement shortly before their executions take place. Lies den Rest dieses Beitrags

Women Attending Concert In Tehran Arrested By Morality Police

Report by Radio Zamaneh; photos by Abdolvahed Mirzazadeh, ISNA

Scores of women who wanted to attend a concert at Milad Tower in Tehran on Monday were arrested by police. ISNA reports that the arrests are connected with the implementation of a plan to deal severely with women who dress „inappropriately“ in public places, adding that a famous actress was also arrested on similar grounds.

The report indicates that an Iranian actress with the initials L.A. was on her way to attend a music concert when the morality police spotted her and arrested her.

Ahmadreza Radan, the deputy police chief, confirmed that the police have stopped women who were not adhering to „hijab“ (accepted Islamic attire), saying: „The police will not allow programs and fairs in which hijab and morality are not observed.“

Lies den Rest dieses Beitrags

Remember Iran Flashback: „How Not to Cover Iran’s Elections — The Awards Ceremony“ (12 June 2009)

On Tuesday, we profiled our first entry in the competition to write the worst story about Iran’s Presidential election: Colin Freeman’s effort, for The Daily Telegraph of London to turn the campaign into a „a rock gig moshpit“ and „a World Wrestling Federation grudge match“ and to make over President Ahmadinejad as a member of The Sex Pistols.

We could not have anticipated the flood of entries that would follow. Each time, we thought the bottom had been reached, an intrepid reporter or commentator would take the bar lower. So, without further ado, the ultimate in Bad Election Journalism:

 THE OPENING ENTRY

The Daily Telegraph: It’s All About the Sex Pistols

A jaw-droppingly awful „atmosphere“ piece by Colin Freeman, a reporter for The Daily Telegraph of London who attended an Ahmadinejad rally.

There is no analysis of worth here — Freeman doesn’t even mention any of the other candidates — merely a series of cultural „translations“ to make these wacky Iranians and their wackier President accessible to British and „Western“ readers:

„The jostling crowds of a rock gig moshpit, and the carefully choreographed build-up of a World Wrestling Federation grudge match….Rather like promoters for the Rolling Stones or the late James Brown, the president’s aides like to keep his fans waiting….One speaker yelled with razzmatazz worthy of TV darts presenter Sid Waddell“ Lies den Rest dieses Beitrags

Remember Iran: A Preview of the Presidential Election (11 June 2009)

Mir Hossein Mousavi with Al Jazeera English, 11 June 2009


Although EA WorldView has tested Live Coverage in December 2008/January 2009 for news and analysis of Israel’s invasion of Gaza, we had not yet established it as a feature of the website, still centred — as „Enduring America“ — on evaluation of US foreign policy.

On Election Day in Iran, we featured Al Jazeera English’s interview of challenger Mir Hossein Mousavi(see top of entry) and President Ahmadinejad’s final campaign message. We had a light-hearted profile of how the „Western“ media were presenting the campaign, re-posted today. And we offered this glance for the present and the future:

On 12 February,  EA’s Chris Emery evaluated the announcement of former President Mohammad Khatami that he would stand in June’s election. He wrote, „[It is] an error…to link Khatami’s entry to the tentative prospect of normalised relations between Iran and the US,“ and focused on internal dynamics of Iranian politics: „It had been widely reported that Khatami would not run if former Prime Minister Mir-Hussein Mousavi chose to….So all Iranian eyes will now watch if Mousavi, another popular reformist, is now the one to withdraw.“

Three months later, and 24 hours before Iranians cast their votes in the first round of the Presidential election, I read Chris‘ piece with pride. He was half-right on the issue of the potential challenger to President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad — it was Khatami who withdrew, leaving Mousavi in the race — but months before many „Western“ journalists and analysts noticed the campaign or dismissed it out-of-hand (only yesterday Thomas Friedman cast it aside as a „pretend election“), Chris saw its significance. This would not be a procession for the re-election of Ahmadinejad or a charade for Supreme Leader Khamenei to hand-pick a winner but a political space for Iranians to consider their political and economic present and future. Equally important, he got to the core of the issues that would shape the outcome: „It will be over presidential legacies and broken promises.“ Lies den Rest dieses Beitrags

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