Archiv der Kategorie: Pressefreiheit

Iran: Jahresbericht zur Pressefreiheit im Jahr 2014

Committee to Protect Journalists

Iran

Jahresbericht zur Pressefreiheit im Jahr 2014 [ID 307447]

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Periodischer Bericht: Attacks on the Press, 2015 Edition – Iran – 10 Most Censored Countries

Netzpiloten| Mesbah Mohammady übers Bloggen im Iran

Der iranische Blogger Mesbah Mohammady sprach am Mittwoch in Chemnitz über die Unterdrückung der Medien im Iran und seine Flucht nach Deutschland. // von Ben Franke

Mesbah Mohammadi spricht in Chemnitz übers Bloggen im Iran

Auf einer von örtlichen Bloggern organisierten Abendveranstaltung sprach am Mittwoch der iranische Blogger Mesbah Mohammady in Chemnitz über die Anfänge der iranischen Blogosphäre, politische Verfolgung und Unterdrückung, sowie seine Flucht nach Deutschland ins sächsische Chemnitz, wo er ironischerweise mehr Repressalien erdulden muss als im Iran.

Mit der Blogging-Plattform Pitas fing alles an

Im Juli 1999 – mehr als 20 Jahre nach “Weiße Revolution” – und der Errichtung einer iranischen Scheindemokratie, demonstrierten Studierende gegen die Schließung der iranischen Zeitung Salam. Dies war die erste offene Demonstration gegen die Regierung. Dabei kam es zu mehreren Toten und mindestens Tausend Demonstranten wurden verhaftet.

Im selben Jahr kam die erste freie Bloggerplattform Pitas auf den Markt. Nachdem im Jahr 2003 das persische Alphabet Teil des Internets wurde, startete Mesbah Mohammady ein Blog und fing an zu schreiben. Mohammady erzählte, in Begleitung seines Übersetzers Mostafa, dass er so bis 2004 seine Meinung zur politischen Situation im Iran frei und unzensiert äußern konnte. Aus Rücksicht auf seine religiöse Familie, bloggte er anonym.

2004 erlangte die iranische Blogosphäre durch einen Streit um die korrekte Bezeichnung des arabischen Golfs erstmals die Aufmerksamkeit der Weltöffentlichkeit. Die Iraner bestanden auf die Bezeichung “Arabischer Golf”, während National Geographic die Bezeichnung “Persischen Golf” verwendete. Durch eine Google-Bombe setzte sich die iranische Blogosphäre zumindest mit technischen Mitteln eindrucksvoll durch.

Doch diese Aktion machte iranische Behörden auf die Blogger-Szene im eigenen Land aufmerksam. 30 von ihnen wurden verhaftet, zwei davon zum Tode verurteilt und einer beging im Gefängnis Selbstmord. Die Blogger wurden eingeschüchtert und gezwungen die USA als Provokateure zu denunzieren, wie Mohammady berichtete.

Jeder Twitterer ist ein Aufrührer

Nach Protesten gegen die gefälschte Präsidentschaftswahl 2009 wurden Blogs gesperrt, um so weitere kritsche Berichterstattung zu verhindern. Als Reaktion darauf entdeckten iranische Blogger Twitter für sich. Zwei Tage lang konnten sie sich frei äußern und austauschen. Das Regime reagierte mit der Sperre von Twitter. Mit Hilfe von ausländischen Aktivisten wurden VPN-Verbindungen hergestellt, damit der Zugang frei blieb.

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Rouhani on Freedom of Speech and Islamic Extremism

rouhani freedom islamAs we noted in our earlier posts, most Iranian leaders reacted to the Charlie Hebdo massacre accordingly: Yes, the massacre is reprehensible BUT the victims deserved it for having insulted Muslims.

Rouhani is different in that he not only understands the sensitivities of Muslims, he is acutely aware of the sensitivities of Westerners whom he feels he needs in order to allow Iran to develop and prosper.

Rouhani on Charlie

charlie 6Rouhani condemned the massacre accusing the terrorists of increasing Islamophobia with their deeds. His condemnation was tempered slightly by the content of Charlie: “A magazine which is used as a weapon of prejudice is always full of bullets of insult and certain people sow the seeds of hatred and others harvest vengeance under the name of religion but with the sickle of massacre.” Hatred in the name of religion is fuelled by hatred in the name of freedom of speech.

He went to great lengths to separate the sensitivities of Muslims who felt insulted by the satire of Charlie Hebdo from the sensitivities of Westerners who were horrified from the reactions of Muslim extremists to the freedom of speech.

A good way to understand Rouhani’s mindset on the sensitivities of this issue is to read and listen to his own words his reactions to similar issues in the past.

Rouhani on Rushdie

rushdieRouhani clearly understands that the sensitivities of Muslim regarding criticism of Islam is equaled to the sensitivities of Westerners regarding criticism of freedom of speech.

In order to understand his mindset on this issue, one should listen to Rouhani’s take on the fatwa against Salman Rushdie and the furor it created in the West: “It’s not a matter of the civil rights of a Western citizen…it is a cultural war…according to their point of view, the problem is that asentence has been issued for an individual who is a citizen of another country…Our response is that the fatwa is a religious decree…we as a government have not issued an order to assassinate this person, so it cannot be said that we have broken international laws, but we say this is the duty of Muslims. And this duty is determined by God.”

In short, he understands why the fatwa is so abhorrent to Westerners but he also understands why the fatwa had to be issued and respected.

Rouhani on “Freedom”

freedom iran 2For Rouhani, freedom has to be tempered and controlled in order to not turn into anarchy: “People (in Iran) are completely free to express their thoughts. Of course, there are laws and rules in every country. There is a court, and if anyone disobeys the law, then it is the law that deals with that person…if we don’t abide by the law, it would be a shambles. We have to distinguish between freedom and shambles“.

That is why issuing a death sentence to Iranian blogger Soheil Arabi for (re)posting a criticism of the Prophet is legitimate. According to Rouhani,  Arabi transgressed the law knowingly and therefore should be held accountable as a criminal because freedom, he believes, must be limited and controlled: “Danger is when, God forbid, there is a group that considers itself equal to Islam, a group that considers itself equal to the Revolution, a group that considers itself equal to the guardianship of the Supreme Jurisconsult and introduces [another] group against religion, against Revolution, against the guardianship of the Supreme Jurisconsult. All problems originate from this point.”

Once again, Rouhani seems to understand the upside of freedom but he warns that too much freedom leads to the unraveling of the fabrics of society in general and Islamic society in particular.

Rouhani on the future of Iran

iranRouhani first and foremost has a clear understanding of the power of diplomacy: Diplomacy, is the art ofunderstanding a region…estimatingits strength and position, and finding opportunities critical to exploit.” But more importantly, Rouhani has a vision for the future of Iran: “In 20 years, our dominant discourse should be “progress and development” – if the dominant discourse is security, then the economy, and science and technology, cannot be the first priorities“.

This form of development is dependent on foreign investment which shies away from Tehran’s traditional focus on security and arrogant attitude of self-sufficiency: “Our difficulty with foreign investment is that the world sees our country as a security risk. We have paid a very high price economically.” In his mind, the future of Iran is dependent on de-isolation and foreign investment and not on self-sufficiency as Khamenei arrogantly tries to portray.

But Rouhani is also a devout Muslim who believes in Iran’s role in leading Islam: “The leader of the Islamic movement is Islamic Iran…the Imam’s (Khomeini) line, path, and thought rules over the hearts of all free Muslims and movements. The eminent leader of the Revolution, his eminence Ayatullah Khamenei…is the leader of the world of Islam today. His message, his words, his cries, his line, his path is the guiding direction for Islamic movements.” Iran’s future is not only in development but in leading Islam globally.

In a way, Rouhani symbolizes the crux of the problems that Iran is going through: his head is facing toward the West but his heart is in Islamic rule.

Quelle: Iran2407

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