Women, Law and Sexuality in Iran

Women, Law and Sexuality in Iran

Iran is a Muslim country with Shia majority. It has over 70 million populations with high percentage of young generation. According to statistical center of Iran, It is estimated over 73 percent of people are aged from 15 to 65 years old. Iran became an Islamic republic after revolution in 1979.Until then the country was served by Pahlavi’s dynasty for almost 50 years since 1925.Imam Khomeini was the leader of Islamic revolution known as supreme leader who approved the theocratic constitution. In 1980 Saddam Hossein invaded Iran. War of Iran -Iraq started and lasted for 8 years of hostility. After the death of Khomeini, assembly of experts appointed Ayatollah Khamenei as his successor in 1989. According to the constitution of Iran, president is the highest position of the executive power. During Khamenie’s leadership presidents of Iran were elected by people; Ayatollah Hashemi Rafsanjani (1989-1997), Seyed Mohamad Khatami(1997-2005), and Mahmood Ahmadinejad (2005-2013). Mahmood Ahmadinejad is a conservative populist whose fraud in election 2009 made Iranians upraise against him for imposing himself to people. During his presidency, Iranians faced a lot of repression and injustice.  He established a highly fundamentalist cabinet; gender segregation policy, and creation of moral police was on the top of his controversial approach to Islamic fundamentalism.  Lies den Rest dieses Beitrags

SPD thematisiert Verfolgung der Glaubensgemeinschaft der Baha’i im Iran

Die Sozialdemokraten setzten sich für eine Stärkung der Religionsfreiheit im Iran und der Rechte Glaubensgemeinschaft der Baha’i ein. Die „vehemente Verfolgung“ der Baha’i durch die iranische Regierung sei religiös und politisch begründet, heißt es in einem Antrag der SPD-Fraktion (17/13474) der am heutigen Donnerstag erstmals auf der Tagesordnung des Bundestagsplenums steht. Ihnen werde zum einen unterstellt, Spione Israels zu sein, zum anderen werde ihnen Apostasie, der Abfall vom Islam, vorgeworfen.

Die Bundesregierung wird unter anderem aufgefordert, Menschenrechtsverletzungen im Iran bilateral und auf internationaler Ebene zu thematisieren und sich „konsequent für die Freiheit des religiösen und weltanschaulichen Bekenntnisses“ einzusetzen. Die iranische Regierung sei aufzufordern, Repressionen und Diskriminierungen gegenüber den Baha’i einzustellen, alle politischen und aus Gewissensgründen Inhaftierten freizulassen und den Menschenrechtsdialog mit der EU wieder aufzunehmen. Mitglieder der iranischen Baha’i-Gemeinde sollen zudem als Gruppenverfolgte in Deutschland aufgenommen werden.


Supreme Leader on Women

      The West has committed an “unforgivable sin” against women by defining them as merely objects of pleasure, Ayatollah Ali Khamenei said on Iran’s National Women’s Day. The supreme leader claimed that Islam grants women equal rights and honor, while Western lifestyle degrades them. He also warned that irreparable damage to family values will lead to the West’s collapse, according to Fars News Agency.

      In his May 1 speech, Khamenei argued that Western women have to serve men to further themselves in society. But Iranian women can participate in “politics, social and jihadi activities, helping people and the Revolution … while preserving her grace, dignity and Islamic hijab,” he claimed in an undated article on his office’s website. The following are excerpted remarks by Khamenei on women.
Women in the West
            “The move that the West’s materialistic civilization has done towards women is a big and unforgiveable sin, the consequences of which are absolutely irreparable… In the West, the human being is divided into two parts: men who are considered beneficiaries and women who are exploited and used…
            Once the foundation of a family is shaken, the problems of that society will be internalized and the Western civilization with its vicious sexual laws is doomed to fail and collapse…” May 1, to poets on National Women’s Day
            “The Western world and in the European world claim to be defending women rights – which is almost all a lie – but women did not have the right to vote, could not speak and choose, and did not have the right to possess property until the early decades of the twentieth century.” From an undated article on Khamenei’s website
Women in Sports
            “An athlete promotes the values of a nation with good sportsmanship and piety. The fact that our woman athletes enter sports arenas with hijab (head covering) is very important…
            “In a certain European country, some people dare to kill a woman because she is wearing hijab. And they do it in a court of law and in front of the judge. This is the case. They are not ashamed of it. Under a certain illegitimate law, they harass women who wear hijab in universities, stadiums, parks and on the streets. In such conditions, a woman who wears hijab stands on the medal platform in such countries makes everyone respect her. Is this a minor achievement? This is a very great achievement. Everybody should appreciate from the bottom of their heart the value of women athletes who participate in international arenas with hijab and modesty…” March 11, to veteran athletes and participants from the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics
Women in Iranian Society
            “Today, the Iranian woman can enter the field of science… while preserving the religion, chastity, piety, dignity, grace, personality and reverence of a typical Muslim woman. There are, among you, many female students, professors and scholars. A woman might also enter the field of religious sciences and information without any obstacles. Among you, there are many seminarians, students, instructors and professors of religious sciences who deal with Islamic fiqh and religious insight. Our great Imam [Khomeini] also highly regarded this issue and gave an order to establish this institute of Qom. Today a woman in our country is able to participate in different activities including politics, social and jihadi activities, helping people and the Revolution and appear in different fields while preserving her grace, dignity and Islamic hijab…” From an undated article on Khamenei’s website
Women in Pre-Revolutionary Iran
            “The woman in the society of the evil system of the kingdom was really an oppressive one… A Muslim woman could not easily survive at the universities and educational, scientific and cultural centers with hijab, grace and dignity. Was it possible? A woman could not walk in the streets of Tehran or some other cities with even a partial hijab… Education for women was almost impossible in this country. Of course, there were exceptions. Generally speaking, entering the field of science for women was almost impossible except by giving up hijab, piety and Islamic dignity!
            The same problem was there in terms of political and social activities. Once a woman decided to have a social or political position in Iran, she had to give up hijab, chastity and the dignity of a Muslim woman. Of course, it depended on how her nature and potentialities were…” From an undated article on Khamenei’s website
Women in Islam
            “In Islam, women have the right of allegiance, property possession while their presence in the social and political arenas is something fixed. Women used to come to the Prophet [Mohammad] to pledge their allegiance. The Prophet wanted both men and women to participate in decision-making. Women did not have to follow men. They participate in choosing their government and the social and political system. The Westerners are a 1300  years behind Muslims in this regard. The same is true about the right to have property and other social and political issues…”  From an undated article on Khamenei’s website
Photo Credit: via Facebook
Source: USIP


JFI at the UN session examining Islamic Republic policies on sex change, women, Afghans and Ahwazi Arabs

After a twenty-year delay on the part of the Islamic Republic of Iran, the 50th session of the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights in Geneva was able to examine reports on serious human rights violations by the Islamic Republic, including those concerning enforced sex change operations and the creation of Afghan-free zone.

To contribute to this significant event, Justice for Iran (JFI) representatives submitted numerous briefingsand attended the session to present details pertaining to systemic human rights violations against women, Afghan immigrants and the Ahwazi Arab community and members of the lesbian,gay and transgender communities in conjunction with Iranian Lesbian and Transgender Network (6Rang). Furthermore, through repeated efforts JFI drew attention to discriminatory measures imposed by the State through unequal inheritance and work rights based on gender, quota system against women in higher education, forced marriage and sexual abuse of the girl children, marital rape, among others. The Islamic Republic delegation composed of experts in health and hygiene, employment, social services, and the environment, lead by Khosrow Hakimi, Advisor to the Head of the Judiciary and Deputy Secretary of the High Council for Human Rights, were presented with questions and concerns raised by JFI among other NGOs.

All of the 17-member delegation failed to provide satisfactory responses to the dedicated Committee session held on Wednesday 1 May 2013. JFI was one of two NGOs present at the session. “This is the first of many efforts by JFI to not just work with the office of the UN Special Raporteur on the situation of human rights in Iran, but through a wide range of channels and bodies of the United Nations to shift the dialogue on Iran to one that is human rights-centric rather than one that is focused on the nuclear issue”, said Shadi Sadr, the Executive Director of JFI “it is our hope that the results of this session will influence Islamic Republic state policies involving women, LGBT community, Afghan immigrants and the Ahwazi Arabs in accordance with international laws and standards.”

As part of this process the Committee will record all concerns raised in its concluding remarks, all of which the Islamic Republic is responsible to implement and report on in its next review.

Justice For Iran’ was established in July 2010 with the aim of addressing the crime and impunity prevalent among Iranian state officials and their use of systematic sexual abuse of women as a method of torture in order to extract confession. It uses methods such as documentation of human rights violations, and research about authority figures who play a role in serious and widespread violation of human rights in Iran; as well as use of judicial, political and international mechanisms in place, to execute justice, remove impunity and bring about accountability to the actors and agents of human rights violations in the Islamic Republic of Iran.

Source: JFI


Gender and Society In Iran – Part 1: The Debate Over Child Marriage, Including Child Brides Wed To Adult Men

By: Y. Mansharof and A. Savyon*


The past few years have seen an increasing public debate about issues of gender and society in Iran – the woman’s place in the private and public arena, cohabitation of unmarried couples, women’s right to travel abroad without permission of a male guardian, the hijab, and more, as opposed to the Islamic regime’s position on these issues.

One such issue is the phenomenon of marriages involving children, including children under age 10 – especially arranged marriages of girls to adult men, or even to elderly men.

This paper will discuss child marriages in Iran, especially those of very young girls to older men. It is the first in a series on the discussion in Iran on gender and society, and on how Iran’s Islamic regime is dealing with these issues.

One Million Children, Even Under 10, In Arranged Marriages – And 85% Of Them Are Girls

Under Iranian law, girls may marry at 13 and boys at 15, and children under 10 may marry with the approval of their guardian and the court.[1]According to official statistics, about one million children, even under age 10, are married. The statistics also show that 85% of these one million married children are girls – meaning that most of them are married to grown men.[2]

Child Marriage Is Growing, And Poses Great Risk To Society – But It’s Permitted By Islamic Law

Public figures – sociologists, Majlis members, activists, and others – have warned that the number of children marrying is on the rise, and with it the great health and social risks this poses for society, and have called on the regime to tackle it with legal and cultural reforms.[3] According to one sociologist, arranging marriages for children, especially girls, is common among poor and uneducated urban families that seek a way out of dire financial straits; he adds that the girls themselves are severely damaged both physically and psychologically.

Regime spokesmen have denied the extent of the phenomenon, and have also shrugged off the matter, saying that child marriage is legal and that preventing it is against Islamic law.

The following are facts, figures, and main arguments in the debate on child marriage in Iran. Lies den Rest dieses Beitrags

Launching a new campaign: Five years TOO MANY


We are launching an international campaign to seek the immediate release of the seven imprisoned Baha’i leaders – and all other prisoners of conscience in Iran. We hope people of good conscience around the world will raise their voices in support of this call and urge the Iranian Government to live up to its international human rights obligations.

As visitors will see, we have numerous documents on this Website that explain the unjust and wrongful manner in which the seven were arrested, tried and imprisoned.

Their story is similar to what is happening to the roughly 100 other Baha’is now in prison in Iran – and the hundreds of other innocent prisoners of conscience that have been incarcerated for simply exercising their internationally recognized human rights.

The campaign begins on 5 May – and runs through 15 May 2013. We plan to report here on the activities and efforts that are undertaken around the world in support of this campaign as we approach the fifth anniversary of the arrest of the seven. Lies den Rest dieses Beitrags

Reports of convictions for apostasy in Iran within the last 5 years

Green Legal Aid Board logo

Iran – Researched and compiled by the Refugee Documentation Centre
of Ireland on 12 September 2012
Reports of convictions for apostasy in Iran within the last 5 years
A Danish Immigration Service fact-finding mission report, in a section titled
“The inclusion of apostasy in the drafting of a new Penal Code” (paragraph
6.1.1), states:
“The delegation sought to gather information on the draft Penal Code, which
imposes the death penalty for apostasy. The death penalty for apostasy
already exists in Iran under Sharia Law. At the time of the mission, the draft
was awaiting before Parliament. Approval of the draft Penal Code will codify
the death penalty for any male Iranian who leaves his Islamic faith. Women
will be sentenced to life imprisonment. The EU has expressed deep concern
about the draft Penal Code in Iran. On 9 September 2008, the Iranian
Parliament voted in favour of the draft Penal Code. Parliament voted in favour
of the new law with 196 votes for and just seven against. The draft still has to
go through Iran’s policy-making process before being implemented as law. At
the time being, Parliament is reviewing it article by article, after which it will be
sent to Iran’s most influential body, the Guardian Council, who will then rule
on it.” (Danish Immigration Service (April 2009) Human Rights Situation for
Minorities, Women and Converts, and Entry and Exit Procedures, ID Cards,
Summons and Reporting, etc., pp.29-30) Lies den Rest dieses Beitrags

OVG NRW: Verfolgungsgefahr von Christen im Iran

1. Nach § 60 Abs. 1 Satz 5 AufenthG i.V. m. Art. 9 und 10 Qualifikationsrichtlinie 2004/83/EG liegt eine Verfolgung auch bei gravierenden Eingriffen in die Religionsausübung in der Öffentlichkeit vor (wie EuGH, Urteil vom 5.9.2012 – verb. Rs. C-71/11 und C-99/11 -).

2. Eine Verfolgungsgefahr von Christen im Iran besteht nicht nur für konvertierte ehemalige Muslime, die nach außen erkennbar eine missionarische Tätigkeit entfalten oder eine herausgehobene Rolle einnehmen, sondern insbesondere auch für die Angehörigen einer evangelikalen oder freikirchlichen Gruppierung, die ihre Abkehr vom Islam dadurch nach außen sichtbar werden lassen, dass sie in Ausübung ihres Glaubens an öffentlichen Riten teilnehmen.

(Amtliche Leitsätze)

Iran, religiöses Existenzminimum, forum internum, Religionsfreiheit, Religionsausübung, Religion, religiöse Verfolgung, Konvertiten, Glaubenswechsel, Konversion, freikirchliche Gruppierung, Freikirche, evanglikale Gemeinde, evangelikale Gruppierung, Gottesdienst, christlicher Glaube, Änderung der Rechtslage,

RL 2004/83/EG Art. 10 Abs. 1 b, RL 2004/83/EG Art. 9 Abs. 1 a, AufenthG § 60 Abs. 1, Lies den Rest dieses Beitrags

Der Runde Tisch der Religionen in Deutschland: Religionsübergreifender Appell an iranische Führung



Der Runde Tisch der Religionen in Deutschland appelliert zum iranischen Neujahrsfest in einem offenen Briefan die iranische Führung, dass Christen und Bahá’í „der ihnen durch die Menschenrechte zugesagte Schutz gewährt werde“.

„Andersdenkende und Andersgläubige sind besonders schutzbedürftig“, schreibt das religionsübergreifende Gremium hochrangiger Repräsentanten der großen Religionsgemeinschaften in Deutschland. „Wir denken insbesondere an Menschen christlichen Glaubens und an Bahá’í. Letztere sind nach jüngsten Medienberichten besonders in der Provinz Semnan Übergriffen ausgesetzt“, heißt es in dem Schreiben vom 14. März an Ayatollah Khamenei zum Nawruz-Fest 1392.

Der Brief wurde unterzeichnet von Repräsentanten aus der evangelischen, katholischen und orthodoxen Kirche sowie aus dem Buddhismus und der Bahá’í-Religion. Sie sendetendem religiöser Führer und dem gesamten iranischen Volk Glückwünsche zum Neujahrsfest. „Nawruz verkörpert eine weltweit geschätzte iranische Tradition zum Frühlingsanfang, die immer wieder mit dem Gedanken der Erneuerung in Verbindung gebracht wird.“ Vielen Menschen bleibe an Nawruz nur die Hoffnung auf eine bessere Zukunft. Auch zahlreiche Bürger des Iran lebten von der Hoffnung, dass ihnen elementare Menschenrechte gewährt werden, schrieb der Runde Tisch der Religionen. Lies den Rest dieses Beitrags

Bundestag: Öffentliche Anhörung des Auswärtigen Ausschusses – „Die Entwicklung des Politischen Islam in der MENA-Region“

Die 81. Sitzung des Auswärtigen Ausschusses findet statt als öffentliche Anhörung am:
Mittwoch, dem 20.03.2013, 09:00 Uhr, 10557 Berlin,
Sitzungssaal: 3.101
Sitzungsort: Marie-Elisabeth-Lüders-Haus
Allgemeine Informationen zum Besuch öffentlicher Anhörungen
Bitte teilen Sie uns zur Anmeldung bis zum 18. März 2013 (Anmeldeschluss) per E-Mail
( oder Fax (030-227 36131) folgende Angaben mit:

  • Datum und Thema der Anhörung
  • Name, Vorname
  • Geburtsdatum

Wir bitten um Verständnis dafür, dass die Anmeldung aus Kapazitätsgründen nicht immer den
Zugang garantieren kann. Ein frühzeitiges Erscheinen ist daher empfehlenswert. Wegen des teilweise
großen öffentlichen Interesses können wir Ihre Anmeldung leider grundsätzlich nicht
bestätigen. Ein Rede- und Fragerecht besteht nicht.

Bitte überprüfen Sie kurz vor dem Termin der Anhörung die Raumangaben auf der Internetseite
des Auswärtigen Ausschusses, da sich diese kurzfristig ändern können, und bringen Sie zur
Einlasskontrolle einen gültigen Personalausweis oder Reisepass mit.


Thema der öffentlichen Anhörung:

Die Entwicklung des Politischen Islam in der MENA-Region

Geladene Sachverständige:


  • Thomas Birringer – Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, Leiter Team Afrika und Naher Osten
  • Dr. Michael Bröning – Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, Internationale Entwicklungszusammenarbeit, Referat Naher und Mittlerer Osten/Nordafrika
  • Prof. Dr. Mathieu Guidère – Universität Toulouse/Frankreich, Fachbereich Islamische Studien
  • Prof. Gudrun Krämer – Freie Universität Berlin, Lehrstuhl für Islamwissenschaften
  • N.N.

Ruprecht Polenz, Mdb


Lies den Rest dieses Beitrags

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