As a graduate student in Scotland, President-elect Hassan Rouhani wrote about two deeply debated issues: the flexibility of Islamic law and the separation of powers in an Islamic democracy. His work in the mid-1990s echoes many of the reformist ideas at the time.
Glasgow Caledonian University released abstracts from his master’s and doctoral degrees shortly after his election in response to new public interest. Rouhani attended the Scottish university under his birth-name Hassan Feridon. Rouhani, which means “spiritual,” was added after he became a cleric. The following are abstracts with links. Lies den Rest dieses Beitrags
Source: Human Rights Watch
Law Permits Execution of Child Offenders, Other Abusive Practices
(Beirut) – Iran’s judiciary should not implement provisions of the new penal code that violate basic rights, including execution by stoning. The Guardian Council, composed of 12 religious jurists, reinserted the stoning provision into a previous version of the draft law which had omitted stoning to death as the explicit penalty for adultery.
No official statistics are available, but human rights groups estimate thatthe Iranian authorities currently hold at least 10 women and men who face possible execution by stoning on adultery charges. At least 70 people have been executed by stoning in Iran since 1980. The last known execution by stoning was in 2009.
“Stoning to death is an abhorrent punishment that has no place in any country’s penal code,” saidSarah Leah Whitson, Middle East director at Human Rights Watch. “By insisting on keeping stoning in the penal code, Iranian authorities are providing proof positive that they preside over a criminal justice system based on fear, torture and injustice.”
Iran’s semi-official Mehr News Agency reported on April 27, 2013, that the Guardian Council had finished reviewing and making changes to the draft penal code and that the law would soon be implemented. The Guardian Council is an unelected body empowered to vet all legislation to ensure its compatibility with Iran’s constitution and Sharia, or Islamic law. It had approved an earlier version of the draft penal code but then withdrew its approval in late 2012 to amend it further before implementation. Lies den Rest dieses Beitrags
This week our design intern Patryk has been working with Maral to produce an image that uses data gathered from Ebtekar News and the Society for Protecting the Rights of the Child. At first glance the bold numbers jump off the page, leading us to delve deeper into the narratives behind the numbers.
The 13 hidden in the background?
Sharia law recognises girls as adults when they turn nine, and while the minimum age for marriage in Iran is 13 for girls and 15 for boys, younger children can be married off with the approval of their guardians and the court.
85% of the nearly 2 million Iranians under the age of 19 to marry over the past 6 years were girls.
More than 200,000 Iranians under the age of 15 were married; 97% of them were girls.
In 2010, 716 Iranian girls younger than 10 were married.
Who is asking, „Would you marry me?“
The Special Rapporteur on the Situation of Human Rights in the Islamic Republic of Iran, Dr Ahmad Shaheed, wrote in his latest UN report that he is ‚deeply concerned about reports that the Legal Affairs Committee of the Iranian Parliament has announced that the law that prohibits the marriage of girls below the age of 13 is considered to be “un-Islamic and illegal”‘.
Iran is a Muslim country with Shia majority. It has over 70 million populations with high percentage of young generation. According to statistical center of Iran, It is estimated over 73 percent of people are aged from 15 to 65 years old. Iran became an Islamic republic after revolution in 1979.Until then the country was served by Pahlavi’s dynasty for almost 50 years since 1925.Imam Khomeini was the leader of Islamic revolution known as supreme leader who approved the theocratic constitution. In 1980 Saddam Hossein invaded Iran. War of Iran -Iraq started and lasted for 8 years of hostility. After the death of Khomeini, assembly of experts appointed Ayatollah Khamenei as his successor in 1989. According to the constitution of Iran, president is the highest position of the executive power. During Khamenie’s leadership presidents of Iran were elected by people; Ayatollah Hashemi Rafsanjani (1989-1997), Seyed Mohamad Khatami(1997-2005), and Mahmood Ahmadinejad (2005-2013). Mahmood Ahmadinejad is a conservative populist whose fraud in election 2009 made Iranians upraise against him for imposing himself to people. During his presidency, Iranians faced a lot of repression and injustice. He established a highly fundamentalist cabinet; gender segregation policy, and creation of moral police was on the top of his controversial approach to Islamic fundamentalism. Lies den Rest dieses Beitrags
Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei told athletes that they play a valuable role in promoting Iran’s values abroad and raising “national self-confidence” at home. Athletes act as ambassadors at international competitions, presenting Iran as a “determined, religious, talented and noble nation, which is committed to Sharia (Islamic law),” Khamenei said at a March 11 meeting with veteran athletes and participants from the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics. The supreme leader argued that Iranian women who wear hijab while competing promote piety and modesty abroad. Refusal to compete with Israeli athletes is a “truly crucial and important diplomatic effort to confront the Zionist regime,” he said. The following are excerpted remarks from Khamenei’s speech.
Imam Khomeini – The Man Who Changed The World
Iran: The ‚Pariah State‘
Iran – Researched and compiled by the Refugee Documentation Centre
of Ireland on 12 September 2012
Reports of convictions for apostasy in Iran within the last 5 years
A Danish Immigration Service fact-finding mission report, in a section titled
“The inclusion of apostasy in the drafting of a new Penal Code” (paragraph
“The delegation sought to gather information on the draft Penal Code, which
imposes the death penalty for apostasy. The death penalty for apostasy
already exists in Iran under Sharia Law. At the time of the mission, the draft
was awaiting before Parliament. Approval of the draft Penal Code will codify
the death penalty for any male Iranian who leaves his Islamic faith. Women
will be sentenced to life imprisonment. The EU has expressed deep concern
about the draft Penal Code in Iran. On 9 September 2008, the Iranian
Parliament voted in favour of the draft Penal Code. Parliament voted in favour
of the new law with 196 votes for and just seven against. The draft still has to
go through Iran’s policy-making process before being implemented as law. At
the time being, Parliament is reviewing it article by article, after which it will be
sent to Iran’s most influential body, the Guardian Council, who will then rule
on it.” (Danish Immigration Service (April 2009) Human Rights Situation for
Minorities, Women and Converts, and Entry and Exit Procedures, ID Cards,
Summons and Reporting, etc., pp.29-30) Lies den Rest dieses Beitrags